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A quantitative, risk-based approach to the Managment of Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis

ABSTRACT

DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.4678
Importance Current algorithms for management of neonatal early-onset sepsis (EOS) result in medical intervention for large numbers of uninfected infants. We developed multivariable prediction models for estimating the risk of EOS among late preterm and term infants based on objective data available at birth and the newborn’s clinical status.

Objectives To examine the effect of neonatal EOS risk prediction models on sepsis evaluations and antibiotic use and assess their safety in a large integrated health care system.

Conclusions and Relevance Clinical care algorithms based on individual infant estimates of EOS risk derived from a multivariable risk prediction model reduced the proportion of newborns undergoing laboratory testing and receiving empirical antibiotic treatment without apparent adverse effects.

 

Early, Accurate Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy

ABSTRACT

DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.1689
Importance Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months’ corrected age.
Objectives To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy–specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function.
Evidence Review This study systematically searched the literature about early diagnosis of cerebral palsy in MEDLINE (1956-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), CINAHL (1983-2016), and the Cochrane Library (1988-2016) and by hand searching. Search terms included cerebral palsy, diagnosis, detection, prediction, identification, predictive validity, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The study included systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses, criteria of diagnostic accuracy, and evidence-based clinical guidelines.
Findings are reported according to the PRISMA statement, and recommendations are reported according to the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Findings Six systematic reviews and 2 evidence-based clinical guidelines met inclusion criteria. All included articles had high methodological Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) ratings. In infants, clinical signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy emerge and evolve before age 2 years; therefore, a combination of standardized tools should be used to predict risk in conjunction with clinical history. Before 5 months’ corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are term-age magnetic resonance imaging (86%-89% sensitivity), the Prechtl Qualitative Assessment of General Movements (98% sensitivity), and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (90% sensitivity). After 5 months’ corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are magnetic resonance imaging (86%-89% sensitivity) (where safe and feasible), the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (90% sensitivity), and the Developmental Assessment of Young Children (83% C index). Topography and severity of cerebral palsy are more difficult to ascertain in infancy, and magnetic resonance imaging and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination may be helpful in assisting clinical decisions. In high-income countries, 2 in 3 individuals with cerebral palsy will walk, 3 in 4 will talk, and 1 in 2 will have normal intelligence.
Conclusions and Relevance Early diagnosis begins with a medical history and involves using neuroimaging, standardized neurological, and standardized motor assessments that indicate congruent abnormal findings indicative of cerebral palsy. Clinicians should understand the importance of prompt referral to diagnostic-specific early intervention to optimize infant motor and cognitive plasticity, prevent secondary complications, and enhance caregiver well-being.

 

New Medical and Surgical Insights Into Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Review.

ABSTRACT

DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.2708
Importance Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has long remained a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. While the mainstay of treatment for this devastating condition remains largely supportive, research efforts continue to be directed toward understanding pathophysiology as well as how best to approach surgical management when indicated.
Observations In this review, we first examine recent medical observations, including overviews on the microbiome and a brief review of the use of probiotics. Next, we discuss the use of biomarkers and how clinicians may be able to use them in the future to predict the course of disease and, perhaps, the need for surgical intervention. We then provide an overview on the use of exclusive human milk feeding and the utility of this approach in preventing NEC. Finally, we discuss recent developments in the surgical management of NEC, beginning with indications for surgery and following with a section on technical surgical considerations, including peritoneal drain vs laparotomy. The review concludes with outcomes from infants with surgically treated NEC.
Conclusions and Relevance Although medical treatment options for NEC are largely unchanged, understanding of the disease continues to evolve. As new research methods are developed, NEC pathophysiology can be more completely understood. In time, it is hoped that data from ongoing and planned clinical trials will allow us to routinely add targeted preventive measures in addition to human milk, such as prebiotics and probiotics, to the management of high-risk infants. In addition, the discovery of novel biomarkers may not only prove useful in predicting severity of illness but also will hopefully allow for identification of the disease prior to onset of clinical signs. Finally, continued investigation into optimizing surgical outcomes is essential in this population of infants, many of whom require long-term parenteral therapy and intestinal rehabilitation.

 

Association of Histologic Chorioamnionitis With Perinatal Brain Injury and Early Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Among Preterm Neonates

ABSTRACT

DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.0102
Understanding the role of chorioamnionitis, a major factor leading to preterm birth, in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes may help in identifying potentially modifiable perinatal variables affecting brain health and outcomes among children born preterm.

Objective To evaluate whether histologic chorioamnionitis among neonates born very preterm is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and punctate white matter injury (WMI) or with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes during early childhood.

 

Conclusions and Relevance Histologic chorioamnionitis was not associated with IVH or WMI near birth or with worse cognitive or motor outcomes from 18 to 24 months’ CA after accounting for perinatal factors. Postnatal factors attenuated the association between chorioamnionitis and neurodevelopmental outcomes, highlighting the importance of preventing postnatal illness, such as infection, to promote optimal outcomes among children born preterm.