DOI: 10.1159/000487378 As technology has advanced, survival rates of preterm infants have improved dramatically. Human milk was the primary source of enteral nutrition during the early days of neonatology, but the HIV/AIDS epidemic resulted in an increased use of preterm formula. More recently, the benefits of human milk were rediscovered, resulting in increased use of donor human milk as well. The awareness that human milk does not contain the amounts of nutrients to meet the high requirements of infants born premature resulted in the development of human milk fortifiers. The development of these fortifiers is still ongoing, as are alternative methods of pasteurization of donor milk. Those initiatives will increase the use of human milk with consequently short- and longterm benefits for preterm infants.