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Early progressive feeding in extremely preterm infants: a randomized trial


DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy012
Background Due to insufficient evidence, extremely preterm infants (≤28 wk of gestation) rarely receive early progressive feeding (small increments of feeding volumes between 1 and 4 d after birth). We hypothesized that early progressive feeding increases the number of full enteral feeding days in the first month after birth.

Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of early progressive feeding in extremely preterm infants.

Results Sixty infants were included (median gestational age: 26 wk; mean ± SD birth weight: 832 ± 253 g). The primary outcome differed between groups (median difference favoring the early feeding group: +2 d; 95% CI: 0, 3 d; P = 0.02). Early progressive feeding reduced the use of parenteral nutrition (4 compared with 8 d; P ≤ 0.01) and the need for central venous access (9 compared with 13 d; P ≤ 0.01). The outcome of culture-proven sepsis (10% compared with 27%; P = 0.18), restricted growth (weight, length, and head circumference

Early nutrition and signs of metabolic syndrome at 6 y of age in children born very preterm


DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy015
Background In term-born infants, the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been shown to be associated with formula feeding and early rapid growth. Breastfeeding, however, seems to be associated with a lower risk of MetS among term-born infants.
Objective The possible association between type of early nutrition, early growth, and possible influence on different metabolic outcomes at 6 y of age was investigated in very-preterm-born children.
Design This study is a 6-y follow-up of 281 very-preterm-born infants with a gestational age of ≤32 wk. Infants breastfed at discharge from the hospital were randomly assigned to receive unfortified or fortified mother's milk, whereas those who were not breastfed received a preterm formula. The intervention lasted until 4 mo of corrected age. At 6 y of age, height, weight, and body mass index were measured and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and blood sampling were performed.
Results In total, 239 children participated in the follow-up. No differences were found between the 2 breastfed groups. Formula-fed children were more often predisposed to obesity and from families with a lower social status than were children who were breastfed only. Early rapid growth (crossing of weight percentiles with >1 SD in either direction) was seen in 53% of the children from 34 wk of postmenstrual age and until 2 mo of corrected age and was significantly correlated with several metabolic outcomes at 6 y of age.
Conclusions Children fed a preterm formula postdischarge more often showed early rapid growth than did breastfed children, and early rapid growth was correlated with early signs of MetS at 6 y of age. However, all of the values were within normal ranges. This trial was registered at as NCT02078687.